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司马温公祠与“真宰相”司马光
信息来源:运城侨联    访问次数:791    发布时间:2019-08-01

摄影  闻阔(山西)

澳门真人博彩 司马温公祠位于山西省运城市夏县的鸣条岗上,这里不仅是司马光的墓地,更是司马氏的祖茔,司马光的父兄子孙也大都葬于此地。站在“忠清粹德碑”之前,我回忆着这块巨碑的历史……

澳门真人博彩 提起司马光,人们第一时间能想起的多半是他小时候“砸缸”的故事,渐次能想到的就是《资治通鉴》这部煌煌巨著,再接下来可能想到的就是中学课本中《答司马谏议书》中那个“固执保守”的“反派”形象了。但司马光真的是个“腐朽保守的守旧派”吗?真的是“封建士大夫阶级利益的代言人”吗?真的是个头脑僵硬的“封建卫道士”吗?

这些疑问单凭史料文献很难让人有直观的认识,究竟该如何更深入地了解司马光呢?在查找相关资料时我发现司马光的墓葬就在离家百公里之外的运城夏县,借着周末假期,我带着好奇前往司马光墓地所在的司马温公祠,去探寻司马光的生平与事迹。

司马温公祠位于山西省运城市夏县的鸣条岗上,这里不仅是司马光的墓地,更是司马氏的祖茔,司马光的父兄子孙也大都葬于此地。

墓祠占地达10万平方米,平整旷达,规模宏丽,茔前峰岭回环,奔赴成势,祠后涑水萦绕,流逝有趣,东倚太岳余脉,西临同蒲铁路,环境优美,风光怡人。司马光之子司马康称赞这里“花满一川红蕊乱,渠环千顷翠波分”,其景色之美可见一斑。

由于司马光家族世世代代都葬于此处,因而墓祠之中香火不断,祭祀不绝,祠堂等建筑在明、清及民国时代又经过了多次的修葺,规模也日渐扩大。现在的司马温公祠主要分为五大部分,陵园中部是“温公祠堂”,左侧为“司马祖茔”,右侧为“余庆禅寺”,左前为“神道碑楼”,右前为“涑水书院”。

在茔祠之内还保存有宋、金、元、明、清历朝历代的五彩塑像、砖雕石雕和众多的名家碑刻,历史价值、审美价值颇高,文化底蕴深厚,尤其是碑刻作品,为历代金石学家所推崇,视为难得的珍品。因此在1988年1月,“司马光墓”被国务院公布为第三批全国重点文物保护单位。

站在司马温公祠门前的小广场上,最先映入眼帘的就是三座铜像,左侧的铜像是司马光奋笔疾书著述《资治通鉴》的场景,右侧的铜像是“司马光砸缸”的情景再现,而中间的就是司马光的全身像了,6.8米的巨大铜像让司马光看起来极其高大伟岸,不过以司马光的人品、才能以及历史功绩来说,为其树碑立传,立起铜铸巨像,一点也不为过。

澳门真人博彩 司马光,字君实,自号迂叟,生于天禧三年(公元1019年),北宋陕州夏县(今山西夏县)涑水乡人 ,世称涑水先生,北宋著名历史学家、政治家、文学家。宋仁宗宝元元年(公元1038年)高中进士,历仕仁宗、英宗、神宗、哲宗四朝,官至宰相。元祐元年(公元1086年)去世,谥号文正,被追封太师、温国公。司马温公祠的名称,正是由这温国公的封号而得来的。

司马光为人温良谦恭、刚正不阿、宁折不弯,为官清廉勤俭、不媚上、不欺下,做事认真负责、一丝不苟,做学问刻苦用功、勤奋不辍。常以“日力不足,继之以夜”自诩,其人格堪称儒学教化下的典范,在历朝历代都受人景仰,还被供奉于孔庙,称“先儒司马子”。司马光一生著作甚多,他主持编纂了中国历史上第一部编年体通史《资治通鉴》,还著述有《温国文正公文集》、《稽古录》、《潜虚》、《涑水纪闻》等诸多作品。

寓言雕塑“司马光砸缸”

司马光是个“方正君子”,其冷静果断的性格,自他小时候就能看出来。在《宋史列传第九十五》中有一段:“司马光生七岁,凛然如成人,闻讲《左氏春秋》,爱之,退为家人讲,即了其大旨。自是手不释书,至不知饥渴寒暑。群儿戏于庭,一儿登瓮,足跌没水中,众皆弃去,光持石击瓮破之,水迸,儿得活。其后京、洛画之以为图。”这就是“司马光砸缸”故事的原型。

为什么说它是原型呢?因为在很长时间里都有人质疑“司马光砸缸”的真实性。故事的疑点主要有两个,第一,根据考古证据显示,在宋代时由于技术水平的不足,根本烧制不出能够淹死人的大缸;第二,就算真的有大缸,在古代为了避免破损,大缸在烧制时都会把胎体做的尽量厚实,凭借一个七岁孩童的力气是很难打破缸体的。

澳门真人博彩 不过这个故事出自官修正史,造假的可能性非常低,那么问题出在哪里呢?古人修史时是十分的严谨的,在遣词用句上也力求准确,而在史书原文中根本没有出现“缸”这个字眼,而是出现了另一种容器“瓮”。瓮与缸是有区别的,缸的器型较大,胎体较厚,缸壁呈坡形,底部到缸口逐渐张开;瓮的器型则有大有小,胎体较薄,口小底深肚大,瓮壁呈一定弧度。至于宋代能不能烧制出足够大的瓮,那就更无需质疑了,早在唐代就有“请君入瓮”的成语,那时候就已经能烧制出装下一个成年人的巨瓮了。

跌入收口的瓮内实际上要比跌入敞口的缸里危险性更大,更不容易救援。而大瓮较薄的胎体,又让击破大瓮更为容易,就连孩童也一样能做到。司马光“击瓮救人”,的确是最迅速、最正确的选择。在清代以前所流传的一直都是“小儿击瓮”,直到清末的《最新初等小学国文教科书》第二册中,才变成了“司马光砸缸”,此后以讹传讹,直到现在还都是“砸缸”。看着小广场上“司马光砸缸”的铜像,我不由得一笑,继续向前参观。

司马光“一砸成名”,成了家喻户晓的小英雄,他的故事不仅流传后世,在北宋当时的京城(今开封)、洛阳一带也引起了轰动,当时就有人把这件事画成了《小儿击瓮图》,让司马光名传天下。司马光小小年纪就如此的沉着冷静、机智勇敢,于是就被人们称赞为天才、神童。

小时了了,大未必佳,很多的天才就是在一片赞美声中陷入了迷失、混乱继而被“捧杀”的,比如王安石笔下的方仲永就是如此。

澳门真人博彩 与方仲永相比,司马光的际遇却截然不同,其原因有二,第一,司马光本身刚直冷静的性格,让他不会迷失于旁人的吹捧之中;第二,司马光的父亲司马池,与方仲永贪财的父亲完全不同。

在“温公祠堂”后殿中有司马家族成员的五座泥塑塑像,司马光塑像居左,而正中的就是司马池的塑像。

司马温公祠勤政轶事馆

司马池,宋真宗景德二年(公元1005年)进士,历任同州、杭州、虢州、晋州等地知府,也曾任职过兵部郎中、天章阁侍制等中央职位,官声清廉、勇于任事。

司马光的品行与才智正是来自于两方面的支持,一方面来自于他自身的刚直冷静、好学强识,另一方面也是他父亲的严格监督、着意培养。司马光诚实聪明、正派冷静,深得父亲喜爱。每逢出游或与同僚密友交谈,司马池总是把他带在身边,让他增长见识。耳濡目染之下,使少年司马光不论在知识方面,还是见识方面,都“凛然如成人”。很多当时的大臣、名士,都很赏识司马光。名臣庞籍对司马光视如亲子,尚书张存主动提出将女儿许配给他。司马池辗转河南、陕西、四川各地为官,始终把司马光带在身边,让司马光在15岁以前就走遍了中国各地,开阔了视野,领略了风土人情,了解了民生疾苦,极大地丰富了司马光的社会知识,让他完全不同于一般在书斋里“死读书”的“书呆子”。

澳门真人博彩 司马光是儒家思想培养出来的“方正君子”,极为推崇“民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻”的思想,一辈子以儒家“君子”的高标准要求自己。在他成年后,由于父亲身居高位,可以“封妻荫子”,让司马光可以无需通过考试,就直接当官,而这正是当时给高级官员们的一项“特权”。但是司马光先后两次放弃了“荫职”的机会,选择真刀真枪的参加科举考试。仁宗宝元元年(公元1038年),年仅20岁的司马光一举高中,获得科考中甲科进士第七名,在那个“三十老明经,五十少进士”的年代里,司马光继续保持着自己神童、天才的名声。司马光之所以放弃“荫职”,一方面自然是对自己才学的自信,另一方面也是对这种“特权”的厌恶。

澳门真人博彩 踏上仕途之后,司马光依旧坚守初心,致力于减轻民众负担,宝元二年(公元1039年),西夏与宋交战,宋仁宗为了加强军事防御力量,要求两浙添置弓手,增设指挥使等官职,时任苏州判官的司马光与担任杭州知府的司马池都认为江浙距离陕甘前线极远,不论是练兵还是调兵以当时的交通条件都毫无意义,还会增加财政负担、扰乱民众正常生活,于是由司马光代父草拟《论两浙不宜添置弓手状》,从各方面阐述添置弓手增设武官不可行的缘由。

后来司马光由于政绩出众,上调中央,历任评事、直讲、大理寺丞等职,直到他担任谏官才算把自己的才干发挥到极致。司马光最擅长的就是进谏。他性情刚直耿介,担任专言朝政缺失,指陈皇帝、百官的过错的谏官再合适不过了。

针对北宋“冗兵”的现实,司马光上书建言,补充兵员应当精选,要改变“惟务人多”的局面;针对科举取士,他反对诗赋取士,提倡主考策论,认为只有这样选拔出来的考生,才是经世致用之才,而不单单只会吟诗作赋;针对当时宫中宴饮无度、赏赐成风的现象,连上《论宴饮状》、《言遗赐札子》恳请皇帝为民着想,悉罢饮宴,同时反对朝廷不顾国家实际的赏赐群臣。

观众在国家典籍博物馆欣赏北宋司马光《资治通鉴残稿》

澳门真人博彩 到了嘉佑八年(公元1063年),宋英宗继位,由于司马光等人曾经上奏,劝说仁宗立英宗为太子,所以刚继位的英宗就赏赐了一大笔财物给群臣,司马光也获得了近千缗的金银,司马光却并不领情,认为国家依然贫困,财政依旧困难,官员们高额的俸禄足以维持生活,就上奏请英宗收回成命。这本来是刚继位的英宗“收买人心”的举动,却被司马光顶了回来,就别提多恼火了。

就连同样正直的好友王安石都忍不住劝说司马光,皇帝发给百官的那些钱对国家财政来说只是九牛一毛,发放赏赐更能体现皇恩浩荡。但对于司马光来说,在以官员待遇优厚著称的北宋,那些赏赐对于官员们根本不算什么,但这种找个由头就赏赐的行为让司马光极为厌恶,特别是当时的北宋对外战争不断,国内灾害频仍的情况下,这种“皇恩浩荡”是如此的讽刺。见到皇帝没有收回成命的意思,司马光就直接把自己分得的钱财,交给谏院做公费,以减轻国家负担。这一举动让皇帝和诸位收了钱的高官都十分尴尬,因此司马光得罪了不少人,但他依旧我行我素,不改初心。在这一点上,司马光颇有当年魏征的风范。

澳门真人博彩 在司马光数年的谏官生涯中,除了关注国家命运的大事外,同时也把注意力放到了社会最底层,他关心人民疾苦,为减轻人民负担而发声。他在《论财利疏》中指出:当今天下最苦的是农民,因为“农民苦身劳力,粗衣粗食,还要向政府交纳各种赋税,负担各种劳役。收成好的年代,卖掉粮食以供官家盘剥,遇到凶年则流离失所,甚至冻饿而死”,建议切实采取一些利民措施。这种竭力减轻底层人民负担的思想几乎贯穿在他所有的奏章之中。

司马光冷静刚直的性格,志趣高洁的品行,博学多才的文采,心怀百姓的态度,吸引了一大批志同道合的好友。这其中与他最投契也是关系最复杂的就是司马光的“半生挚友、一生之敌”——王安石。

澳门真人博彩 司马光与王安石之间除了后来形成的政治观点分歧之外,无论是性格、品行、为人、才华等等都极为相似,这样的两个人想不成为好友都难。

果然在嘉佑三年(公元1058年),王安石进京之后,与司马光一见如故,两人诗歌酬唱间与另外两位才子吕公著、韩维还组成了一个文学团体——“嘉佑四友”。

在大量的杂谈野史中,就记载着仁宗朝嘉佑年间,王安石、司马光、吕公著、韩维四人“同在从班,特相友善。暇日多会于僧坊,往往谈燕终日,他人罕得而预。”四人就这样常常聚会,诗词唱和,王安石每作一新词,司马光便热情应和。最有意思的是司马光为了调侃王安石,还作了一首《和王介甫烘虱》,在诗中他写道:“但思努力自洁清,群虱皆当远逋播。”意思是说你个人卫生应该好好清理一下了,别总是聚会的时候还要带上虱子一起参加呀!这样轻快甚至有些“调皮”的作品,在以冷静严肃著称的司马光一生中都是极为少见的。

为了王安石的个人卫生问题,众好友轮流陪着他一起去当时公共浴室“定力院”洗沐,每家还轮流拿出新衣服,给他替换,留下了“拆洗王介甫”的趣闻。这中间包含着嘉佑四友多少快乐的时光啊!

司马光与王安石的友谊还有一个重要物证,就在司马温公祠的“司马祖茔”内。祖茔内现存的四篇墓志铭中,除了司马光祖父司马炫的墓志铭写成较早外,另外三篇中司马光从父司马浩、从兄司马谘的墓志铭都是司马光亲自捉刀的。而司马光另一位从父司马沂的墓志铭,则出自王安石的手笔。墓志铭事关一个人的“盖棺定论”,非得是非常亲厚非常值得信任的人才能书写,司马光延请王安石来书写自己从父的墓志铭,足见两人之间的亲密与信赖。

就算是在政治上,俩人一开始相互之间也是极为欣赏的。嘉佑六年(公元1061年)王安石任制诰,在他任职期间一共写过四篇给司马光升官的诏书,里面对司马光极尽赞美,“操行修洁,博知经术,庶乎能以所学施于训辞;行治,有称于时,政事艺文操行之美,有闻于世,行义信于朝廷,称于天下。”后来,宋神宗继位,需要寻找合适的辅政大臣,司马光与其他很多大臣一起推荐了王安石。就在神宗犹豫时,司马光对王安石进行了总结性的评价,他说:“介甫独负天下大名三十余,才高而学富,难进而易退,远近之士识与不识,咸谓介甫不起则已,起则太平可立致,生民咸被其泽矣。”这段话彻底的打动了神宗,于是神宗任命王安石为参知政事(副宰相),轰轰烈烈的“熙宁变法”蓄势待发。

澳门真人博彩 这里可能有人要问了,这司马光是不是个头脑僵硬的“封建卫道士”啊?答案很明确,不是!这从司马光对待婚姻的态度上就能看出来。中国古代实行一夫一妻多妾的婚姻制度,尤其在宋代,官员们俸禄丰厚,纳妾成风。两宋著名的文臣武将中,只有司马光、王安石、岳飞不纳妾。而且与其他两人都有自己的亲生子女不同,司马光一生都没有自己的亲生子女,却依旧选择不纳妾,与结发妻子相守一生。

在中国古代的封建社会,“不孝有三,无后为大”绝不是一句空话,无后就是大逆不道,夫妻之间没有子女所面对的不仅是情感上的压力,还要面对社会压力和家族的压力。在司马光不为所动的情况下,他的夫人张氏却先妥协了,张罗着为司马光纳妾,司马光屡次坚定拒绝,无奈之下,夫人张氏只好瞒着司马光,偷偷买了一个美人回来,担心司马光抹不开面子,夫人张氏主动回娘家住,让司马光与美人独处。

澳门真人博彩 司马光回家后看到美人就全明白了,他没有疾言厉色,也没有破口大骂,反而不动声色转身去了书房。美人为了讨好司马光,也跟着进了书房。为了寻找话题,美人指着书上的字柔声说道:“这中丞是什么书啊?”司马光一脸正色地说道:“中丞不是书,是官名。”接着,便讲解起了相关的知识。美人一听就傻眼了,她哪知道这是些什么呀。她不断的挑逗着寻找其他话题,却被司马光不软不硬的顶了回去。面对这个坐怀不乱的“榆木疙瘩”,美人也无奈了,最后只能悻悻的离开了。

面对这种情况,夫人张氏既感动又无奈,此后也就不再提纳妾的事情了。司马光也逐渐理解了妻子所面对的压力,但他依旧恪守着不纳妾的原则,选择过继兄长的儿子司马康为养子。

澳门真人博彩 司马光对待婚姻的这种“弱水三千只取一瓢饮”的人生态度,就算是在现代也依旧值得学习。他虽然是儒家思想培养出的“谦谦君子”,但他对封建纲常中不合理的部分是相当不屑的。

澳门真人博彩 现在大部分人都认为司马光是反对“变法”的,这种看法实际上是一种误读。司马光同样认为当时的政治需要改革,对王安石的变法并不是一概反对,尤其当变法还未显露明显弊病时,他也并未公开发表反对意见。甚至有人要指责王安石时,他还进行劝解和说服。直到王安石颁发“青苗法”,司马光才开始表示反对意见,他认为地方官靠权柄放钱收息,要比平民放贷收息危害更大,实际上是变民间高利贷为官府高利贷,“天高皇帝远”的情况下,地方官根本不可能把利息降下来,虽然可以收到一些钱财但对官府形象危害极大,得不偿失,因此表达了强烈不满。“大坏而更改,非得良匠美材不成,今二者皆无,臣恐风雨之不庇也。”他认为应该在守成的基础上研究改革方略,即使改革也要稳妥。但他保守的策略,对于想要“富国强兵、建功立业”的宋神宗毫无吸引力。在《答司马谏议书》中,司马光被王安石彻底驳倒,在王安石“天变不足畏,祖宗不足法,人言不足恤”的口号下,司马光彻底成了“背景板”,在变法大潮下只能黯然离开了政治中心,退居洛阳,当一个有职无权的留司御史台,以书籍自娱,绝口不论政事。

退居洛阳后,司马光并未消沉颓废,而是积极研究史料,继续编撰他梦想中的通史,整整15年,未有一日懈怠,而这部史书就是后来的《资治通鉴》。

澳门真人博彩 关于《资治通鉴》的伟大,实际上根本无需赘言。不过关于编著过程中的小故事,却可以说一说。

司马光在洛阳编修《资治通鉴》时,居所极为简陋;而与他比邻而居的是洛阳留守王拱辰,他的大宅极尽奢华,中堂建屋高达三层,最高一层号称“朝天阁”。王家大宅内每日轻歌曼舞,司马家小院里众人辛苦著述,倒也相安无事。每到夏日,洛阳酷暑难耐,王家每日用大量的冰块降低温度,简陋的司马宅却没有这个条件,司马光的俸禄都买了书籍,资助贫寒学子了,最糟糕的是大汗淋漓之下,司马光与助手们的汗水会沾湿刚写好的文字,让墨迹难以辨认。不过“穷人”有“穷人”的办法,司马光在院子里挖了一个大地窖,夏天众人就搬到地窖里靠着油灯的光线继续工作。当时洛阳就有人戏谑说:“王家上天,司马入地。”但司马光与助手们丝毫没有觉得寒碜,依旧认认真真的编修着史书。

澳门真人博彩 神宗元丰七年(公元1084年),司马光已经66岁,《资治通鉴》终于全部修完。神宗皇帝看着这部“上起战国,下迄五代”,专取“关国家盛衰,系生民休戚,善可为法,恶可为戒”的煌煌巨著,心情非常激动,亲笔御批:“有鉴于往事,以资于治道。”并将书的每编首尾都盖上了皇帝的睿思殿图章,赐予书名《资治通鉴》,并亲为其写序。

澳门真人博彩 《资治通鉴》的完成,让司马光在社会各界的声望达到了顶点。司马光出任宰相的呼声,也越来越高。与此同时,“熙宁变法”的弊病也日益显现。宋神宗元丰八年(公元1085年),宋神宗驾崩,年仅10岁的赵煦继位,是为哲宗。哲宗年幼,由祖母皇太后当政。

苏轼奉敕撰文并书的司马光神道原碑

司马光进京为神宗皇帝奔丧时,在国都的主路上,百姓们夹道欢迎。“赴阙临,卫士望见,皆以手加额曰:‘此司马相公也。’所至,民遮道聚观,马至不得行。”司马光此时已经垂垂老矣,百姓们欢迎他,就是想恳请他出山,辅佐幼帝,造福苍生,众人齐声高呼:“公无归洛,留相天子,活百姓。”

澳门真人博彩 要知道,在此之前司马光从未当过宰相,但是此时他已然成为了人们心目中的“真宰相”了!不过司马光并没有对成为宰相抱有太大的希望,他自感年老体弱,向好友吕公著说:“光自病以来,悉以身付医,家事付康(司马康),国事未有所付。”期望吕公著能够完成他废除“新法”的宿愿。与此同时,上表请求辞去职位。但皇太后对他很倚重,不但不准辞位,反下诏除授尚书左仆射兼门下侍郎,正式拜为宰相。

元祐元年(公元1086年),司马光拜相,甫一上任便罢黜新党众人,接着很快就废除了免役法、青苗法等新法,史称元祐更化。司马光终于完成了自己废除新法的夙愿,实现了自己的政治主张。

澳门真人博彩 这年四月,王安石看到自己苦心经营了大半辈子的新政毁于一旦,伤心之下郁郁而终。司马光得到消息后,痛哭流涕。旁人奇怪司马光为政敌而哭,于是发问,司马光说:“介甫无它,唯执拗耳。”旁人只记得他与王安石是斗了半辈子的政敌,又有谁记得他们曾是至交好友呢?就像当年王安石为相时有人诋毁司马光,但王安石却为他辩驳:“司马君实,君子人也。”也许这就是君子之争吧!君子和而不同,你我政见不同,你不怪我,我也不怪你,我们还是永远的朋友。

王安石去世后仅5个月,司马光便追随老友而去。他临终前所交代的都是国务、公事,没有一件私事。

司马光去世,太皇太后闻之痛哭,追封他为太师、温国公。诏令户部侍郎赵瞻、内侍省押班冯宗道护送,让司马光归葬陕州(今夏县)。谥号为文正,并赐苏轼手书的巨碑“忠清粹德”,表彰其功绩。

司马光归葬故乡的路上,京城的百姓罢市前往吊唁,“鬻衣以致奠,巷哭以过车”。到了下葬的时候,百姓们如同自己的亲人去世一样痛哭流涕。都城的百姓都画出像来供奉祭奠司马光,后来“饮食必祝”,司马光已然成为了神灵。

站在“忠清粹德碑”之前,我回忆着这块巨碑的历史。由于新旧党争的延续,这块巨碑被毁弃过,现存的石碑是明朝嘉靖年间选取巨石,依照宋碑的模样,重刻碑文并建立了碑亭。明碑高7.33米,龟趺、碑首为宋代的原物,碑额御篆“忠清粹德之碑”六个大字,中间小字为“元佑戊辰崇庆殿书”,字体苍劲雄厚,都是苏轼的手书。

看着这块碑,我不由的想起来另一块石碑。宋徽宗时,奸相蔡京诋毁司马光等元祐大臣,撰《奸党碑》(《元祐党人碑》),由长安石工安民负责雕刻,安民推辞不过说:“民愚人,固不知立碑之意。但如司马相公者,海内称其正直,今谓之奸邪,民不忍刻也。”官吏大怒,恐吓说不刻就要坐牢,安民不敢反抗,只能哭着说:“被役不敢辞,乞免镌安民二字于石末,恐得罪于后世。”诋毁司马光的碑文,石匠连名字都不敢留,足见司马光的威信与名声。司马光为相不过八个月,但其一生所留下的盛名,让人仰视。正如蔡京必将遗臭万年,而司马光必将流芳百世。


Sima Wen Gong and "True Prime Minister" Sima Guang

Author?? Wen Kuo (Shanxi)

Translator??Jin Zi(Beijing)

When Sima Guang is mentioned, most of the people can think of the story of his childhood "squatting cylinders". What he can think of gradually is the great book of "Zi Zhi Tong Jian". The next thing that may come to mind is the middle school textbook.  The image of the "inverse" of "stubborn and conservative" in Sima Yi's Proposal.  But is Sima Guang really a "corruptive conservative old school"?  Is it really a "speaker of the feudal scholar's class interests"?  Is it really a "feudal guardian" with a stiff mind?

These questions alone are difficult to get an intuitive understanding of the historical materials. How do you know more about Sima Guang?  When I found the relevant information, I found that Sima Guang’s tomb was in Xia County, Yuncheng, 100 kilometers away from home. By weekend holiday, I went to Sima Wengong, where Sima Guang’s cemetery was located, to find the life of Sima Guang.  And deeds.

Sima Wengong is located on the Mingzhigang in Xia County, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province. It is not only the cemetery of Sima Guang, but also the ancestor of Sima's ancestors. The sons and grandsons of Sima Guang are also buried here.

The tomb covers an area of 100,000 square meters. It is flat and has a grand scale. It rushes to the front of the Fengling Mountains and rushes to the momentum. After the flood, the waters are fascinating, the east is leaning on the Taiyue, and the west is adjacent to the Tongpu Railway. The environment is beautiful.  The scenery is pleasant, and Sima Kang, the son of Sima Guang, praised the place where “the flowers are full of red and yellow, and the canal rings are thousands of green.” The beauty of the scenery can be seen.

Since the Simaguang family has been buried here for generations, the incense in the tomb has been constant, and the sacrifices have continued. The buildings such as the temple have undergone many repairs in the Ming, Qing and Republic of China, and the scale has also expanded.  The current Simawen Gongyi is mainly divided into five parts. The central part of the cemetery is “Wen Gong Temple”, the left side is “Simazuyu”, the right side is “Yuqing Temple”, the left front is “Shendao Monument Building”, and the right front is “Shuishui Academy”. 

In the meantime, there are also colorful statues of the Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, brick carvings and many famous inscriptions. The historical value and aesthetic value are quite high, and the cultural heritage is profound, especially the inscriptions.  It is regarded as a rare treasure by the stone scientists of the past.  Therefore, in January 1988, “Sima Guang Tomb” was announced by the State Council as the third batch of national key cultural relics protection units.

Standing on the small square in front of Sima Wengong's gongs, the first ones are the three bronze statues. The bronze statue on the left is the scene of Sima Guangchen's writing of Zizhi Tongjian, the copper on the right.  Like the scene of "Sima Guangxuan", and the middle is the full body image of Sima Guang, the huge bronze statue of 6.8 meters makes Sima Guang look extremely tall and stalwart, but with Sima Guang's character, talent and historical achievements.  In fact, it is not an exaggeration to set up a bronze statue of a giant statue.

Sima Guang, the word Junshi, from the number 迂叟, was born in Tianzhu three years (AD 1019), Northern Song Dynasty Xiaxian County (now Xiaxian County, Shanxi Province) Lishui Township, the world called Mr. Lishui.  A famous historian, politician and writer in the Northern Song Dynasty.  Song Renzong Bao Yuan first year (AD 1038) high school scholars, Li Shi Renzong, Yingzong, Shenzong, Zhezong four dynasties, officials to prime minister.  Yuanyou first year (AD 1086) died, nicknamed Wenzheng, was chased by Taishi, Wen Guogong.  The name of Simawen’s public servant was derived from the title of Wen Guogong.

Sima Guang is a gentleman and gentleman, just right, not bent, not bent, for the official Qinglian diligence, not flattering, not deceiving, doing things seriously and meticulously, meticulously working hard, diligent.  Often referred to as "the lack of daily strength, followed by the night", its personality is a model of Confucianism, and it has been admired in the dynasties of the dynasties. It has also been enshrined in the Confucius Temple, which is called "the first Confucian horse."  Sima Guang has a lot of works in his life. He presided over the compilation of the first chronological history of the Chinese history, "Zi Zhi Tong Jian", and also wrote "Wen Guowen Zheng Gong Ji", "Ji Gu Lu", "Live", "Shui Shui  Ji Wen and many other works.

Sima Guang is a "Fang Zhengjunzi" whose calm and decisive character can be seen since he was a child.  In the "Sixty-fifth of the Song Shi Lie Chuan", there is a paragraph: "Sima Guangsheng is seven years old, like an adult. He smells "Zuo's Spring and Autumn", loves it, retreats to his family, that is his main purpose.  The book is released, but I don’t know how to be hungry and thirsty. The group plays in the court, and when I am in the court, I fall into the water, and all of them are abandoned. The light is broken by the stone, the water is smashed, and the children are alive. Then Jing and Luo  The painting is like a picture." This is the prototype of the story of "Sima Guangxuan".

Why is it a prototype?  Because for a long time, people have questioned the authenticity of "Sima Guangxuan".  There are two main doubts about the story. First, according to archaeological evidence, in the Song Dynasty, due to the lack of technical level, there was no big cylinder that could drown people. Second, even if there were really big tanks, in ancient times  In order to avoid damage, the big cylinder will make the carcass as thick as possible during firing. It is difficult to break the cylinder with the strength of a seven-year-old child.

However, this story comes from the history of official revision, and the possibility of fraud is very low. So where is the problem?  The ancients were very rigorous when they were studying history. They also tried to be accurate in the use of sentences. In the original text of the history books, there was no such word as "cylinder", but another container "瓮" appeared.  There is a difference between the cymbal and the cylinder. The shape of the cylinder is larger, the carcass is thicker, the cylinder wall is sloped, and the bottom to the cylinder mouth is gradually opened; the shape of the cymbal is large and small, the carcass is thin, and the mouth is thin.  The small bottom is deep and the wall is curved.  As for whether the Song Dynasty can burn enough cockroaches, there is no need to question it. As early as in the Tang Dynasty, there was an idiom of "please enter the shackles". At that time, it was possible to burn the giant python that was the next adult.

It’s actually more dangerous to fall into the open mouth than to fall into the open tank, and it’s harder to rescue. The thinner carcass makes it easier to break the big one, even children.  can do it.  Sima Guang’s “killing and saving people” is indeed the quickest and most correct choice.  Before the Qing Dynasty, it was always “children’s killing”. It was only in the second volume of the latest elementary elementary school textbooks in the late Qing Dynasty that it became “Sima Guangxuan”, and since then it has been passed down to the present.  "砸 ”".  Looking at the bronze statue of "Sima Guangxuan" on the small square, I couldn't help but smile and continue to visit.

Sima Guang became a well-known small hero. His story not only spread to the later generations, but also caused a sensation in the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (now Kaifeng) and Luoyang. At that time, some people painted this thing as "  "Children kill the map", let Sima Guangming pass the world.  Sima Guang’s young age was so calm, resourceful and brave, so he was praised as a genius and child prodigy.

After hours, big is not necessarily good. Many geniuses are lost and confused in a praise, and then they are "killed". For example, Fang Zhongyong of Wang Anshi's pen is like this.

Compared with Fang Zhongyong, Sima Guang’s encounter is quite different for two reasons. First, Sima Guang’s own straightforward personality makes him not lost in the tout of others; second, Sima Guang’s father Sima Chi and  Fang Zhongyong’s father of greed is completely different.

In the back hall of the "Wen Gong Temple", there are five clay sculptures of the Sima family members. The statue of Sima Guang is on the left, and the statue in the middle is the statue of Simachi.

Sima Chi, Song Zhenzong Jingde two years (AD 1005) Jinshi, has served as the prefecture of Tongzhou, Hangzhou, Zhangzhou, Jinzhou, etc., has also served in the central position of the Ministry of Military Affairs Langzhong, Tianzhangge, etc.  Have the courage to do business.

Sima Guang's character and talents come from two aspects of support. On the one hand, he is from his own calm, eager to learn, and on the other hand is his father's strict supervision and intentional training.  Sima Guang is honest and intelligent, and he is calm and well-loved.  Every time he travels or talks with his close friends, Sima Chi always takes him around, letting him grow his knowledge and know what to do, so that the younger Sima Guang is "like an adult" in terms of knowledge and knowledge.  Many ministers and celebrities at that time were very appreciative of Sima Guang.  The famous minister Pang Ji was like a parent of Sima Guang, and Shang Cun offered to give his daughter a gift.  Sima Chi turned to Henan, Shaanxi, and Sichuan as officials. He always took Sima Guang around, let Sima Guang travel all over China before the age of 15, broaden his horizons, appreciate the customs, understand the hardships of people's livelihood, and greatly  Enriched Sima Guang's social knowledge, making him completely different from the "nerd" who usually "deadly studied" in the study.

Sima Guang is a "Fang Zhengjunzi" cultivated by Confucianism. He highly praises the idea that "the people are expensive, the society is second, and the gentleman is light.", and he has always demanded himself with the high standards of Confucian "gentlemen".  After he was an adult, because his father was in a high position, he could "close his wife's shades" and let Sima Guang go directly to the office without passing the exam, which was a "privilege" for senior officials at that time.  However, Sima Guang twice gave up the opportunity of "shadowing" and chose to take the Imperial Examination.  In the first year of Renzong Baoyuan (AD 1038), Sima Guang, who was only 20 years old, won the seventh place in the junior high school in the scientific examination. In the era of the "Thirty Old Mencius, Fifty Scholars",  Sima Guang continued to maintain his reputation as a child prodigy and genius.  The reason why Sima Guang gave up the "shadow position" is naturally the self-confidence of learning for himself, and on the other hand, the dislike of this "privilege."

After embarking on the official career, Sima Guang still adheres to the initial intention and is committed to reducing the burden on the people. In the second year of Baoyuan (AD 1039), Xixia and Song fought, Song Renzong in order to strengthen the military defense force, asked the two Zhejiang to add archers, add commanders, etc.  In the official position, Sima Guang, then a Suzhou judge, and Sima Chi, who is the prefect of Hangzhou, believe that Jiangsu and Zhejiang are far from the front line of Shaanxi and Gansu. Whether it is training or mobilizing the traffic conditions at that time is meaningless, it will increase the financial burden and disturb the people.  Normal life, so Sima Guang's father drafted "On the two Zhejiang should not add a bow hand", from all aspects to explain the reasons for adding a bowman to add military officers is not feasible.

Later, Sima Guang was promoted to the Central Committee due to his outstanding political achievements.  Directly speaking, Dali Temple and other duties, until he served as an eunuch, he was able to play his talents to the extreme.  Sima Guang is best at advancing.  His temperament has just been introduced to him. He has been a special speaker in the absence of politics. It means that the eunuchs of Chen’s emperor and Baiguan’s fault are no longer suitable.

In response to the reality of the "redundant soldiers" in the Northern Song Dynasty, Sima Guang wrote a book saying that the recruitment of soldiers should be selected, and the situation of "only a large number of people" should be changed; for the imperial examinations, he opposes the poetry, advocates the subject, and believes that only  Candidates who have been selected are the only ones who can be used in the world, not just poetry; for the phenomenon of feasting and rewarding the wind in the palace at that time, even the "concept of feasting" and "the gift of the song"  "I urge the emperor to think about the people, to stop the banquet, and to oppose the court's rewarding ministers regardless of the actual situation of the country."

In the eight years of Jiayou (AD 1063), Song Yingzong succeeded to the throne. Since Sima Guang and others had played and persuaded Ren Zongli to be a prince, the newly succeeded Yingzong rewarded a large amount of property to the ministers, Sima Guang.  He also received nearly a thousand gold and silver. Sima Guang did not appreciate it. He believed that the country is still poor, the finances are still difficult, and the high salaries of the officials are enough to maintain their lives.  This was originally the success of the British sect "buy people's heart" move, but was Sima Guang top back, don't be too angry.

Even Wang Anshi, a friend of the same integrity, couldn’t help but persuade Sima Guang that the money that the emperor sent to the officials was only a slap in the face of the state’s finances, and the rewards were more able to reflect the mighty prosperity.  But for Sima Guang, in the Northern Song Dynasty, which is known for its excellent officials, those rewards are nothing to the officials, but this kind of behavior that is rewarded by the head makes Sima Guang extremely disgusted, especially at the time of the Northern Song Dynasty.  In the case of frequent domestic disasters, this "magnitude" is so ironic.  Seeing that the emperor did not recover his life, Sima Guang directly handed over the money he had distributed to the brothel for public expenses to ease the burden on the state.  This move made the emperor and the high-ranking officials who took the money very embarrassed. Therefore, Sima Guang offended many people, but he still did his own thing and did not change his mind. At this point, Sima Guang had the demeanor of Wei Zheng.

In the eunuch career of Sima Guang for several years, in addition to paying attention to the fate of the country, he also paid attention to the bottom of the society. He cares about the suffering of the people and speaks for the burden of the people.  In his "Discussion on Financial Benefits", he pointed out that the most bitter thing for today is the peasants, because "the peasants are hard-working and heavy, and they have to pay various taxes to the government and bear all kinds of labor.  The food was cut off for official use, and it was displaced in the first half of the year, even if it was frozen and hungry. It is recommended to take some measures to benefit the people.  This idea of trying to alleviate the burden of the people at the bottom is almost throughout his allegations.

Sima Guang’s calm and straightforward character, his noble and charitable character, his versatile literary talents and his attitude towards the people have attracted a large number of like-minded friends.  Among them, the most complicated relationship with him is Sima Guang's "half-year-old friend, the enemy of life" - Wang Anshi.

 In addition to the differences in political views that later formed between Sima Guang and Wang Anshi, whether they are character, conduct, talent, talent, etc., it is very difficult for such two people to become friends.

 Sure enough, in Jiayou three years (AD 1058), after Wang Anshi entered Beijing, he met Sima Guang as soon as possible. The two poetry sings and two other talents, Lu Gong, and Han Wei, also formed a literary group - "Jiayou IV  Friends."

 In a large number of wild history records, during the period of the reign of Emperor Renzong, Wang Anshi, Sima Guang, Lu Gong, and Han Wei were "same in class, and they were very friendly. In the days of Weifang, they often talked about Yan’s day.  Others are rare and pre-emptive." The four people often meet like this, poetry sings, and Wang Anshi makes a new word. Sima Guang is enthusiastic.  The most interesting thing is that Sima Guang also made a "He and Wang Jie 甫 为了" in order to ridicule Wang Anshi. In the poem, he wrote: "But the thoughts are self-clean and clear, and the group is all far away."  Hygiene should be cleaned up, don't always bring a donkey to join together!  Such a light and even "naughty" work is extremely rare in Sima Guang's life, which is known for his calmness and seriousness.

 In order to personalize the personal hygiene of Wang Anshi, the friends took turns to accompany him to the public bath “Dingliyuan” at that time. Each family took turns to take out new clothes and replace them with him, leaving an anecdote about “Removing and Washing Wang Jieyu”.  This contains a lot of happy time for Jiayou four friends!

 An important material evidence of the friendship between Sima Guang and Wang Anshi is in Simazu’s “Sima Zuyu”.  In addition to the early epitaphs of Sima Guang's grandfather Sima Hyun, the four epitaphs in the ancestral ancestors were written earlier, and the other three sima Ma Guang’s epitaphs from the father Sima Hao and the brother Ma’s counsel were Sima Guang’s own knife.  Another epitaph of Sima Guang from his father, Sima Yi, was written by Wang Anshi.  The epitaph is related to a person's "conclusion", which must be written by a very close and trustworthy person. Sima Guangyan asked Wang Anshi to write his own intimacy and trust between the two.

Even in politics, the two of them were extremely appreciative of each other.  In the sixth year of Jiayou (AD 1061), Wang Anshi was appointed as the system. During his tenure, he wrote four books for Sima Guangsheng, which praised Sima Guang. "Running and cleaning, knowing how to do it, you can  According to what he has learned in the teachings; the rule of governance, when it is called, the beauty of the political and artistic performances of the political affairs, the smell of the world, the righteousness of the faith in the court, called the world." Later, Song Shenzong succeeded, need to find suitable  Minister of State, Sima Guang and many other ministers recommended Wang Anshi.  Just as Shenzong hesitated, Sima Guang made a conclusive evaluation of Wang Anshi. He said: "There is more than 30 names in the world, and it is high and rich, and it is difficult to retreat.  It’s said that it’s too much to look down on, but it’s too peaceful to be settled, and the people are salty and sorrowful.” This passage completely touched Shenzong, so Shenzong appointed Wang Anshi as a political officer (deputy prime minister) and vigorously  The Ningbian Law is ready to go.

Someone here may ask, why do the two later become political opponents that "can not be shared with the ice, if the cold and the heat can not be at the same time"?  This needs to start from the reality of the Shenzong dynasty. At that time, the social problems in the Northern Song Dynasty were already very serious. The whole country was in crisis. The Emperor Sect, including the Emperor Shenzong, believed that "when there is a great cause, it is today", "change" is already the trend of the times.  .  At that time, the two churches gradually formed opinions on the two sides. Some officials believed that they should be tinkered with the main elements on the basis of the former dynasty. These people were called "old parties"; another part of the officials thought that it should be carried out in a drastic manner.  Thorough reform, this part of the people is called the "new party."  Sima Guang belongs to the "old party" and Wang Anshi is the leader of the "new party."  The beginning of the bipartisan division is not clear. Although there are frictions in political views, the personal relations of the officials have not been affected. However, a simple criminal case soon became a politically divided, bipartisan, bottomless line.  Fire rope!  This case also changed the friendship between Sima Guang and Wang Anshi. This is the case of Ayun.

This is a case that occurred in the early years of Shenzong Xining. In Dengzhou at that time, there was a woman named Ayun. During the mourning of her mother’s death, she was given the ugly man named Wei by her greedy father.  .  On the one hand, Ayun was saddened by the ruthlessness of his mother's deceased father. On the one hand, he hated the ugliness of Wei's man. He took a sharp knife and went to the man's home of Wei, and wanted to kill this person.  Wei surnamed the man to escape, but was also stabbed by Ayun and cut a finger.  The man surnamed Wei chose the newspaper officer in an anger. The local official arrested Ayun and felt that it was a murder case. He did not dare to judge the case and reported the central government of the Song Dynasty. Song Shenzong asked the proficiency law after seeing the case.  The opinions of Sima Guang and Wang Anshi of the law.

Sima Guang thinks that although Ayun did not kill the man surnamed Wei, but because the two sides have already entered into a marriage contract, Ayun should commit a felony of "murdering a husband and wife." This crime was a crime at the time, even if the man surnamed Wei did not die.  Ayun should also be sentenced.  Wang Anshi believes that the marriage contract between Ayun and Wei surnamed men was made during the period of his mother's mourning. It should be invalid. Ayun should be guilty of ordinary injuries. He should be lightly sentenced.  The two people’s disputes about the case gradually became the dispute between the old party and the new party. The situation gradually became out of control. The two parties gradually became mutual attacks with private grievances, and the views began to become extreme. The old parties insisted on  The sentence was sentenced to death by Ayun, and the new party demanded that Ayun be innocent.

At that time, Song Shenzong had made up his mind to make a drastic change. So he supported the New Party’s opinion. In the name of the emperor, he changed Ayun. Ayun was released without sin. Sima Guang ignored this law.  The results were difficult to accept and very angry. Several times the defense of the book was suppressed by the Emperor Shenzong. As a result, the old party and the new party became increasingly antagonistic, and the friendship between Sima Guang and Wang Anshi buried a deep rift.

Someone here may ask, is this Sima Guang a "feudal guardian" with a stiff mind?  The answer is clear, no!  This can be seen from Sima Guang’s attitude towards marriage.  In ancient China, the marriage system of monogamy and sorrow was implemented. In the Song Dynasty, the officials were rich and rich, and they became the wind. The only famous Wenchen military commanders in the two Song Dynasty were Sima Guang, Wang Anshi, Yue Fei, and both of them.  Different from their own children, Sima Guang did not have his own children in his life, but he still chose not to be jealous and lived with his wife.

In ancient Chinese feudal society, "no filial piety has three, no aftermath is big" is not an empty talk. Nothing is a big deal. No children between the husband and wife are not only emotionally stressed, but also face social pressure and family.  pressure.  In the case that Sima Guang was unmoved, his wife Zhang first compromised. Zhang Luo was the Sima Guangna, and Sima Guang repeatedly refused. In desperation, Mrs. Zhang had to take Sima Guang and secretly buy it.  A beautiful woman came back, worried that Sima Guang could not open his face, and Mrs. Zhang took the initiative to return to her family to live, so that Sima Guang and the beauty alone.

 When Sima Guang came home, he saw that the beauty knew it. He didn’t swear and swear, and he turned to the study.  In order to please Sima Guang, the beauty also followed the study. In order to find the topic, the beauty pointed to the soft words in the book: "What book is this lieutenant?" Sima Guang said with a positive face: "Lieutenant is not a book, is  Official name." Then I explained the relevant knowledge. The beauty is dumbfounded when she hears it. She knows what it is.  She kept teasing and searching for other topics, but she was turned back by Sima Guang, who was not soft and hard. In the face of this unconcerned "榆木疙瘩", the beauty was helpless, and finally she could only leave.

 In the face of this situation, Mrs. Zhang is both moved and helpless, and will not mention the embarrassing thing afterwards.  Sima Guang also gradually understood the pressure faced by his wife, but he still adhered to the principle of not accepting the guilty, and chose Sima Kang, the son of his brother to be adopted.

 Sima Guang’s attitude towards the marriage of “weak water, three thousand to take a drink” is still worth learning in modern times.  Although he is a "modest gentleman" cultivated by Confucianism, he is quite disdainful about the unreasonable part of the feudal outline.

 Most people now think that Sima Guang is opposed to "change the law". This view is actually a misunderstanding.  Sima Guang also believed that the political needs of the time were reforms, and Wang Anshi’s reforms were not totally opposed. Especially when the reforms had not revealed obvious ills, he did not publicly express his objections.  Even when someone wants to blame Wang Anshi, he also persuaded and persuaded.  Until Wang Anshi issued the "Young Seedling Law", Sima Guangcai began to express objections. He believed that local officials rely on authority to release money and pay interest, which is more harmful than civilians' lending and lending. In fact, it is a private loan shark as a government loan shark, "Tiangao  In the case of the emperor's far, it is impossible for the local officials to lower the interest. Although they can receive some money but they are extremely harmful to the image of the government, they are not worth the loss, so they express strong dissatisfaction.  "Big bad and change, non-good craftsmanship is not good, neither is today, and the ministers are not sheltered." He believes that the reform strategy should be studied on the basis of Chengcheng, even if the reform is to be safe.  However, his conservative strategy is not attractive to Song Shenzong, who wants to "rich the country and strengthen his troops and make contributions to his achievements." In the "Answer Sima Yi", Sima Guang was completely refuted by Wang Anshi. In Wang Anshi, "the sky is becoming fearless, and the ancestors are not enough."  Under the slogan of Speaking, Sima Guang has completely become a "background board". Under the tide of change, he can only leave the political center and retreat to Luoyang.  Self-entertainment with books, no matter what political affairs.

 After retiring from Luoyang, Sima Guang did not dissipate and decadent. Instead, he actively studied historical materials and continued to compile the general history of his dreams. For 15 years, he did not slack off, and this history book is the later Zi Zhi Tong Jian.

 There is no need to rumor about the greatness of Zi Zhi Tong Jian.  But the little story about the editing process can be said.

 When Sima Guang edited "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" in Luoyang, his residence was extremely simple, and he lived next to him. Luoyang stayed behind Wang Gongchen. His mansion was extremely luxurious. Zhongtang built a house with three floors. The highest floor was called "Chaotiange."  Every day in the Wang family's house, the songs are sung and the people in Sima's small courtyard are working hard, but they are also safe.  Every summer, Luoyang is very hot, and the Wang family uses a lot of ice to reduce the temperature every day. The simple Sima House does not have this condition. Sima Guang’s Luo Lu bought books to help the poor students. The worst is sweating.  Underneath, the sweat of Sima Guang and his assistants will wet the text just written, making the ink difficult to identify.  However, the "poor people" had a "poor" approach. Sima Guang dug a large cellar in the yard. In the summer, everyone moved to the cellar and continued to work with the light of the oil lamp.  At that time, there were people in Luoyang who said, "Wang family goes to heaven, and Sima enters the ground." But Sima Guang and his assistants did not feel chilling at all, and they still carefully edited the history books.

 In the 7th year of Emperor Yuanzong Yuanyuan (AD 1084), Sima Guang was 66 years old, and the "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" was finally completed.  Emperor Shenzong looked at this "from the Warring States, the next five generations", specializing in "the country's ups and downs, the people are rested, the good can be the law, the evil can be the ring", the magnificent masterpiece, very excited, personally approved:  "In view of the past, to govern the way." and each chapter of the book is covered with the Emperor's Ruisi Hall stamp, the title of the book "Zi Zhi Tong Jian", and pro-order.

 The completion of "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" has made Sima Guang's prestige in all walks of life reach its peak. Sima Guang's call for the prime minister is getting higher and higher. At the same time, the ills of "Xining Reform" are becoming more and more apparent.  Song Shenzong Yuanfeng eight years (AD 1085), Song Shenzong died, the 10-year-old Zhao Wei succeeded to the throne.  Zhezong was young and was in power by the Empress Dowager.

 When Sima Guangjin entered the funeral of Emperor Shenzong, on the main road of the capital, the people welcomed him.  "When you are on the verge, the guards will see you, and all of them will increase their foreheads: 'This is the same as the Sima Xianggong. 'There is a gathering of the people, and the horses are not allowed to go." Sima Guang has been hanging down, the people  Welcome him, just want to ask him to go out of the mountain, to help the young emperor, to benefit the people, everyone shouted: "There is no return to the public, stay in the Son of Heaven, live the people."

 You must know that Sima Guang has never been a prime minister before, but at this time he has become the "real prime minister" in people's minds!  However, Sima Guang did not have much hope for becoming a prime minister. He felt that he was old and weak and told his friend Lu Gong: "Since the illness, I have been paying for my medical treatment, and my family has paid for it (Sima Kang), the state affairs.  There is no payment." It is expected that Lu Gong will be able to fulfill his long-cherished wish to abolish the "new law."  At the same time, the above table requests to resign.  However, the Empress Dowager relied heavily on him. Not only did he not allow his resignation, but he also dismissed the servant and left the servant and officially worshipped the prime minister.

In the first year of Yuanyou (AD 1086), Sima Guang worshipped, and when he took office, he ousted the new party. Then he quickly abolished the new law of the law of exemption and the law of young crops.  Sima Guang finally fulfilled his long-cherished wish to abolish the new law and realized his political proposition...

In April of this year, Wang Anshi saw that the New Deal, which had been painstakingly managed for most of his life, was destroyed and ended in a sad mood.  After Sima Guang got the news, he cried and screamed. Someone wondered that Sima Guang was crying for the political enemy. So he asked, Sima Guang said: "There is no such thing as it." Others only remember that he and Wang Anshi have been fighting political opponents for half a lifetime.  Who remembers that they used to be friends?  Just like when Wang Anshi was in the same phase, someone smashed Sima Guang, but Wang Anshi refuted him: "Sima Junshi, gentleman is also." Perhaps this is the battle of gentlemen!  Gentlemen are different, you and I have different political views, you don't blame me, I don't blame you, we are friends forever.

 Only five months after Wang Anshi’s death, Sima Guang followed his old friend.  What he confessed before his death was state affairs and business affairs, and there was no private matter.

Sima Guang passed away, and the Empress Dowager cried and cried, and sealed him as Taishi and Wen Guogong.  The ambassador of the Ministry of Housing, Zhao Zhan, and the servant of the province, Feng Zongdao, escorted and sent Sima Guang to the state of Shaanxi (this summer county).  The nickname is Wen Zheng, and the monument to Su Shi’s handwriting is “Zhong Qing Pu De”, in recognition of his achievements.

On the way to Sima Guang’s hometown of the burial, the people of the capital city went to the city to hang on to the condolences.  When they were buried, the people burst into tears like their loved ones died.  The people in the capital have drawn pictures to worship Sima Guang, and later "diet must be wished", Sima Guang has become a god.

Before the "Zhongqing pilgrimage", I recalled the history of this monument.  Due to the continuation of the old and new party struggles, this monument was destroyed. The existing stone monument was selected from the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty. According to the appearance of the Song monument, the inscription was re-enacted and the tablet pavilion was established.  The monument is 7.33 meters high. The turtles and the inscriptions are the original objects of the Song Dynasty. The monuments are the six characters of the "Zhongqing pilgrimage". The middle small characters are "Yuanyou Wuchen Chongqing Temple Book". The fonts are vigorous and strong.  Su Shi's hand book.

 Looking at the monument, I couldn't help but think of another stone.  When Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty, the traitor Cai Jing ruined Sima Guang and other ministers of Yuan You, and wrote the "Treaty of the Party" ("Yuanyou Party Monument"). The sculpture was carried out by Changan Shigong Anmin, but the people said: "The people are fools, they don't know  But the meaning of the monument. But if Sima Xianggong, Hainan said that it is upright, this is the traitor, the people can not bear to engrave." The bureaucrats are furious, threatening to say that they will not go to jail, Anmin does not dare to resist, can only cry and say: "  If you are enslaved, you will not be able to resign, and you will be excused from the end of the stone at the end of the stone. You will be offended by the later generations." The inscription on the Sima Guang was destroyed. The stonemason did not dare to stay with the name. It is enough to see Sima Guang’s prestige and reputation. Sima Guang is only eight  Month, but the prestige left by it is eye-catching.  Just as Cai Jing will be stinking for a long time, and Sima Guang will be alive.

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